Risks of not having a shareholders agreement

shareholders' agreement

When do I need a shareholders’ agreement?

For the founders of a stock corporation, sooner or later the question arises whether they need a shareholders’ agreement. One often hears from SME circles in particular that this is already part of the standard. But is such a contract absolutely necessary? And what exactly should it contain? We will answer these and other questions about shareholders’ agreements.

At a glance

It is important to know that a shareholders’ agreement regulates the position and obligations of the contracting parties among themselves, but never implies the company as a contracting party. Regulations of the relationships between the AG and the shareholders do not belong in this contract.

Terminology and meaning of the shareholders’ agreement

The shareholders’ agreement has many names. Some call it a pool contract, others a syndicate contract or a shareholder consortium. However, that is all one and the same. A shareholders’ agreement applies exclusively to the legal form of a stock corporation. The basic aim of this contract is to regulate the rights and obligations of shareholders among one another. You can also integrate non-shareholders into the contract – these are usually potential future share buyers.

But why bother when there is stock corporation law? From his point of view, the tasks of a shareholder are very simple: They only have one duty and that is to pay in the corresponding share capital. This may be sufficient within large corporations, in which shareholders are often completely unfamiliar with one another. It usually looks different in smaller companies. In particular, when the company has only a few shareholders, there is a closer relationship with one another. Then you need to know who is working alongside you. This implies the desire to establish equal rules – both from the point of view of the shareholders and the partners.

Structure and content of the shareholders’ agreement

As mentioned before, a shareholders’ agreement does not at any time regulate the corporate law obligations of shareholders towards the stock corporation. It only regulates the obligations between the individual contracting parties themselves.

As far as the scope of the contract is concerned, there are no specific legal provisions. The general legal requirements must be complied with. You must also take into account personal rights and public order. Of course, the contract must not contain any immoral content (Art. 19 Para. 2 OR).

In most cases, a shareholders’ agreement is based on both corporate and contractual agreements. The basis of a shareholders’ agreement usually consists of the following points.

  • Contractual partner preamble
  • Contractual basis
  • Contract duration
  • Criminal law provisions in the event of a breach of contract
  • Succession planning in the event of death
  • Place of jurisdiction
  • Severability clause
  • Most contracting parties opt for this additional content:
  • Voting lock-up clauses
  • Responsible persons and responsibilities on the Board of Directors
  • Disposal regulations and pricing mechanisms
  • Loyalty Duties and Competition Clauses
  • Obligations to make additional payments and make additional payments
  • Regulations on employee participation, especially in the case of succession plans
  • Stalemate clauses
  • Obligation to commit when additional shareholders join

Some of the listed provisions often reinforce the efforts of founders to actively work towards a shareholder agreement, as this content is often perceived as particularly useful within the shareholder relationship. We’ll cover three of them shortly.

Legal form and

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Paris climate agreement tourism


The climate conference in Paris

On December 12, 2015, history was made in Paris: the Paris Agreement was passed at the international climate conference, also known as “COP 21”. After many years of intensive negotiations, all states have committed themselves to changing the world economy in a climate-friendly way. This is a historic step – according to the previous regulation in the so-called Kyoto Protocol, only a few industrialized countries were obliged to reduce emissions.

Even at the beginning of the climate conference it became clear that the global community takes the threat from climate change very seriously: Over 150 heads of state and government were on site at the opening in Paris and signaled the unconditional will of the international community to provide a joint response to the threat posed by the Give climate change. The Federal Government was represented by Federal Chancellor Merkel, Federal Environment Minister Hendricks and Federal Development Minister Müller. The delegations negotiated intensively for two weeks – and laid the basis for a new era in international climate protection. The Paris Agreement sends a clear signal for a fundamental change and calls for an economy that takes into account the natural limits of the planet. Fits to,

Paris Agreement

In contrast to the Kyoto Protocol, almost all countries in the world have now defined national climate protection targets. With ratification, the states are obliged under international law to take measures to achieve the goals. Another important part of the agreement: poorer countries are supported financially as well as through knowledge and technology transfer to implement their climate protection measures.

The respective national climate protection goals are determined by the states themselves and were not the subject of the negotiations. However, the agreement obliges the governments to present new targets every five years after a global inventory. And they have to be significantly more ambitious than the previous ones. A committee to monitor implementation and rules on transparency ensure that states comply with their obligations. This regular cycle of increasing ambitions is intended to cope with the problem that the previous climate protection contributions by states are not yet sufficient to adequately curb global warming. The national climate protection targets must therefore be tightened step by step if dangerous climate change is to be avoided.

The primary goal is to limit global warming to well below two degrees Celsius and, if possible, below 1.5 degrees Celsius. So Paris was just the beginning: All market participants now have a long-term and reliable orientation for the necessary transformation. Our present is already heavily influenced by the implementation of the Paris resolutions – both on an international and a national level.

1. The Paris Agreement on Climate Change

The Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted in 1992. The world has changed fundamentally since then. In 1990 industrialized countries caused around 60 percent of global emissions, today it is only around a third. In 2030, developing countries will be responsible for around three quarters of annual global emissions. The Kyoto Protocol, which previously regulated the limitation of greenhouse gases, is no longer sufficient today. It only legally obliges the EU and a few other industrialized countries to reduce emissions. This covers less than 15 percent of global emissions.

For the first time, the Paris Agreement makes all states responsible … Read full

Download Lease Agreement Templates


What is Sample Lease Agreement Templates?

Sample lease agreement templates are a type of type file that explains the rental relationship between the proprietor and the occupant. Test templates can be found online in form of tenancy arrangement sample, lease agreement sample and other types of arrangement design templates. It is important to keep in mind that for some individuals who do not have a concept of the kind of lease arrangements, then examining a sample rental contract might be perfect for a start.

What Does it Use for?

Sample lease arrangement templates is used to prepare a genuine agreement for the property owner and tenant rental arrangement. It is used to produce understanding between the landlord and tenant when leasing a property. This is because by creating a lease contract, the opportunities of misunderstanding is minimized as all terms and conditions are laid bare and understood by both parties. It can also be used for home owners that intends to rent a room in their houses to another tenant. It can be used for property manager to tenant arrangement or perhaps tenant to sub renter agreement. Whatever the case, the most crucial thing is that the conditions are agreed by both parties to become effective.

What Kind of Information is Required to Fill in the Template

To fill the design template, some crucial info is required and they include

  • The names of the tenant, landlord and the residential or commercial property supervisors if there is any
  • The leas and payment due dates
  • The time period in which the lease works
  • The area and precise recognition of the home
  • The signatures of the parties involved

Rental and Lease Agreement Templates

A rental and lease contract is a document that details the plan in between an owner of a real estate, called the “property manager” or “lessor”, and somebody else that wants to pay rent while occupying the property, called the “tenant” or “lessee”. In layperson’s term, it’s a file utilized for the occupying of space (either commercial or residential) for a period of time in exchange for month-to-month rent. The regards to the agreement are flexible in between the occupant and landlord and when signed, the kind is considered legally and mutually binding.

With Jotform, you have a choice to include e-signature widgets to your type and have your renter fill out the rest of it. An ideal use case is to generate a PDF copy of the submitted arrangement that can be printed out. Rather of fastidiously developing a PDF output for your arrangement, why not utilize among the templates we developed for you? If you’re in the property service, branding is necessary since you’ll be sharing this contract with a lot of clients. Our revamped PDF Editor will permit you to fully personalize the design template, include your own branding, change the order of the questions, or customize the context of the terms and conditions.

If you haven’t had a possibility to develop a rental and lease arrangement previously, we’re listing down a few of the most crucial information you need to ask and disclose on your arrangement– The premises (whether it’s a home, house, apartment, basement, or attic), contact information of the property owner and tenant, the quantity of cash paid by the occupant to the landlord, … Read full

Brexit withdrawal agreement 2019


As of February 1st, the United Kingdom has ceased to be a member of the European Union. With the end of a transition phase on December 31, 2020, British nationals in Germany will now have to take care of their right of residence – new residence documents are to be issued in the course of 2021.

From January 1st, 2021, The Provisions for third countries. Travelers are only allowed to enter Germany if they return to their place of residence, perform an important function or are traveling mandatory is.

Following the signing of the exit agreement by the UK and the European Union ( EU ), Brexit came into force on February 1, 2020.

Initially, nothing changed for citizens and companies – there was a transition phase until the end of 2020 in which EU law in and for the United Kingdom continued to apply in principle, but without British co-determination rights in the EU institutions. The UK continued to be part of the EU internal market and the EU customs union during this period.

From January 1, 2021, British nationals and their family members must take care of their right of residence in Germany. Please see the information below for UK nationals and their family members on right of residence under the Withdrawal Agreement for more details.

What was agreed between the EU and Great Britain in the exit agreement?

After the November 2018 agreement in the British House of Commons did not receive the necessary support, the negotiators on both sides agreed on a slightly modified package on October 17, 2019 with the exit agreement. In addition to the exit agreement itself, these were cornerstones of future relationships that, after further negotiations, led to the further agreement agreed at the end of 2020.

The first of these agreements, i.e. the Withdrawal Agreement, is decisive for the right of residence of British citizens who have previously lived in Germany. The following key aspects are at the heart of this agreement: the rights of EU citizens living in the UK and the rights of British people living in the EU are fully protected; As long as they have exercised free movement rights so far, they can in principle continue to live, work, study and enjoy social security in the respective state in which they were resident. The United Kingdom’s financial obligations were also regulated. The European Court of Justice has an important role to play in monitoring and implementing the agreement.

The EU states are colored dark blue, the non-EU states in light blue. The United Kingdom is colored red. A pale yellow star circle of the EU is depicted over the area on the left.
During the transition period, the exemption for citizens of EU Member States continued to apply to British naturalization applicants. They could be naturalized with continued British citizenship.

As of January 1, 2021, after the end of the transition period, British nationals can in principle only be naturalized if they have previously given up British citizenship.

For British nationals who have applied for naturalization in Germany before the end of the transition period (i.e. by December 31, 2020) , a transitional arrangement applies. You do not need to give up British citizenship provided all other naturalization requirements were met prior to the end of … Read full

Can I end a rental agreement early

Late rent

Unreasonableness: When you can terminate despite the minimum rental period – and when not

Once the rental agreement and the waiver of termination have been signed, there is usually no going back. Under certain circumstances, the tenant can terminate his contract despite the minimum rental period – with the help of an extraordinary termination. However, there must be an important reason in accordance with Section 543 or 569 of the English Civil Code.

Sometimes landlords block themselves even though there is a valid reason for the extraordinary termination. Advocates will then find the right lawyer for you from a network of over 500 partner lawyers. They will contact you within 2 hours for a free initial assessment of your options for action and chances of success. Now describe the case.

In order to be able to decide whether there is an important reason, the interests of the tenant must be considered more important than those of the landlord. Early termination is only possible if the tenant cannot reasonably be expected to hold onto the tenancy. It should be noted that courts can be strict when determining the unreasonableness.

Since it is a matter of interpretation, legal disputes can arise. The tenant must then prove that the reasons for unreasonableness mentioned below were not self-inflicted or foreseeable.

Professional move

In principle, a new job can be such an important reason. If the place of work is too far away from the current apartment, it is usually unreasonable for the tenant to commute. However, problems could arise if the tenant changes employers voluntarily. In this case, a court has to weigh the interests of the two parties against each other.

Change of university

If students change university in the course of their studies, they have the right to an extraordinary termination. Landlords must allow students a degree of flexibility.

Addition to the family

An addition to the family is also a valid reason to end a tenancy early. For example, if the apartment is too small to raise a baby, the tenant can cancel despite the minimum rental period. However, if it is already clear at the time of the conclusion of the contract that the tenant is pregnant, there is no longer any unreasonableness – because the change in circumstances was foreseeable.

Not payed rent

A lack of rent is usually always in the landlord’s risk area. Rent deficiencies are, for example, construction noise, a broken heating or mould. If the tenant cannot be expected to continue living in the apartment, he has a special right of termination. Even if the landlord is not directly responsible for defects, he must take care of rectifying them. If he does not do this – even after a reminder – you can reduce the rent or make use of the special right of termination.


In principle, a separation does not affect the rental agreement. If both partners are in the contract, both are liable for the rental payments – regardless of whether they still live together or not. The background is that a separation is in the risk area of ​​the tenants and cannot be attributed to the landlord.

New tenant

If none of the above reasons come into question, the tenant only has a clarifying discussion with the landlord. You can … Read full